Volume 5, Issue 1 (9-2019)                   FPCEJ 2019, 5(1): 17-42 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sohrabi Fard M M, Samadi Fard A, Naseri Nia S, Rashidi F. The intervention on cognitive distortion and self-critical of the unmarried girls: The effectiveness of efficiency of the training of compassionate mind skills. FPCEJ. 2019; 5 (1) :17-42
URL: http://fpcej.ir/article-1-208-en.html
1- MA, Clinical Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2- MA, consulting, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz Iran , azarsamadi65@yahoo.com
3- Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz Iran
Abstract:   (631 Views)
The training of compassionate mind was designed corresponding to the structure of cognitive behavioral therapy and historical trend of this therapeutic model roots in lack of improvement of negative affection in cognitive behavioral therapy. Therefore the current study was administered aimed to intervention in cognitive distortion and self-critical of unmarried girls: effectiveness and efficiency of the training of compassionate mind skills. In this study the semi-experimental method was used. The design of semi-experimental of current research was pretest-posttest test with a control group. The statistical population of this study was all unmarried girls in Khorramabad city that after 35 years old have not married for their own reasons. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with 35 years old girls of Khorramabad city who were selected by purposeful sampling method and were assigned randomly to two groups of compassionate mind training (15 subjects) and control group (15 subjects). Both groups completed the Hamamchi et al. (2000) questionnaire of interpersonal cognitive distortion and the Thompson and Zorof (2004) scale for self-critical levels. The experimental group received the 10 sessions of compassionate mind skills once a week and 1.5 hours each session. The results of the multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) indicated that the training of compassionate mind skills is effective in reducing the interpersonal cognitive distortion and self-critical of unmarried girls (p≤0/001). Based on the findings, the group training focused on compassionate mind can be applied as a modern intervention method in reducing of emotional problem of unmarried
Full-Text [PDF 1192 kb]   (254 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: Special

1. Barrera, T. L.; Szafranski, D. D.; Ratcliff, C. G.; Garnaat, S. L. & Norton, P. J. (2015).“An Experimental Comparison of Techniques: Cognitive Defusion, Cognitive Restructuring, and in-vivo Exposure for Social Anxiety”. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,1–6.
2. Beck, A. T. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression.Guilford Press.
3. Bhatia, R. Tambe, a (2014). Raising the age of marriage in 1391s India: Demographers, despots, and feminists. Women's Studies International Forum, 44, 23–111.
4. Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression, theatrical, clinical and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 203-30.
5. Brennan, M.A., Emmerling, M.A., Whelton, W.J. (2015). Emotion-focused group therapy: Addressing self-criticism in the treatment of eating disorders. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 15(1), 67–75.
6. Cosley, B. J., McCoy, S. K., Saslow, L. R., & Epel, E. S. (2010). Is compassion for others stress buffering? Consequences of compassion and social support for physiological reactivity to stress. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 816-823.
7. Dinger, U., Barrett, M.S., Zimmermann, J., Schauenburg, H., Wright, A.G., Renner, F., Zilcha-Mano, S., Barber, J.P. (2015). Interpersonal Problems, Dependency, and Self-Criticism in Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology,71(1), 93–104.
8. Eidelman, P.; Talbot, L.; Ivers, H.; Bélanger, L.; Morin, C. M. & Harvey, A. G. (2016).“Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia”.Behavior Therapy, 47(1),102–115.
9. Elaine Beaumont, C. J & Hollins, M. (2016). Exploration of a training programme for student therapists that employs Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) to developcompassion for self and others. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 22, 5-13.
10. Ellis, A. (2005); Rational emotive behavior therapy: a therapist's guide (2nd Edition), With Catharine Maclaren. Impact Publishers.
11. Enns, M. W, Cox, B.J. (1999). Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder. Behav Ther; 37: 783-94.
12. Finlay-Jones AL, Rees CS, Kane RT (2015) Self-Compassion, Emotion Regulation and Stress among Australian Psychologists: Testing an Emotion Regulation Model of Self-Compassion Using Structural Equation Modeling. PLoS ONE 10(7), e0133481.
13. Gebel, M. Heyne, S (2016). Delayed transitions in times of increasing uncertainty: School-to-work transition and the delay of first marriage in Jordan. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users.
14. Gilbert P. (2005). Compassion and cruelty: A biopsychosocial approach. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: Conceptualisati ons, research and use in psychotherapy. Hove, UK: Routledge; p. 9–74.
15. Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing comp-assion- focused therapy. Journal of Advances in psychiatric treatment. 2, 199-208.
16. Gilbert, P. (2014). The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53, 6-41.
17. Gilbert, P. Clarke, M. Hempel, S. Miles, J. N. V. & Irons, C. (2004). Criticizing and reassuring oneself: an exploration of forms, styles and reasons in female students. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 31–50.
18. Gilbert, P., & Irons, C. (2005). Focused therapies and compassionate mind training for shame and self-attacking. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy (pp. 263-325). London: Routledge.
19. Gillanders, D. T., Sinclair, A. K., MacLean, M. &Jardine, K. (2015).Illness cognitions, cognitive fusion, avoidance and self-compassion as predictors of distress and quality of life in a heterogeneous sample of adults, after cancer.Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(4), 300–311.
20. Hamamci, Z. & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2004). The interpersonal cognitive distortions scale: development and psychometric characteristics. Psychological Reports. 95(1), 291-303.
21. Iancua, L., Bodnerb, E., Ben-Zionc, I.Z. (2015). Self esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-criticism in social anxiety disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58,165-171.
22. James, K., Verplanken, B., Rimes, K.A. (2015). Selfcriticism as a mediator in the relationship between unhealthy perfectionism and distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 79,123-128.
23. Kopala-Sibley, D.C., Zuroff, D.C., Russell, J.J., Moskowitz, D.S. (2014). Understanding heterogeneity in social anxiety disorder: dependency and self criticism moderate fear responses to interpersonal cues. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(2),141- 156.
24. Kudo, Y (2015). Female Migration for Marriage: Implications from the Land Reform in Rural Tanzania. World Development, 65, 41–61.
25. Leary, M. R. (2004). The curse of the self: Selfawareness, egotism, and the quality of human life. New York: Oxford University Press.
26. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92, 887- 904.
27. Lloyd, C.B (2005). Growing up global. The changing transitions to adulthood in developing countries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Pressb.
28. Luyten, P., Sabbe, B., Blatt, S.J., Meganck, S., Jansen, B., De Grave, C.,Corveleyn, J. (2007). Dependency and self-criticism: Relationship with major depressive disorder, severity of depression, and clinical presentation. Depression and Anxiety, 24(8), 586–596.
29. Moffitt, R.; Brinkworth, G.; Noakes, M. & Mohr, P. (2012a).“A comparison of cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion as strategies for resisting a craved food”. Psychology & Health, 27 (2),74-90.
30. Mongrain, M, Leather, F. (2006). Immature dependence and self-criticism predict the recurrence of major depression. J Clin Psychol; 62: 705-13.
31. Murayama, S (2001). Regional standardization in the age at marriage: A comparative study of pre-Industrial Germany and Japan. The History of the Family, 6(2), 313-324.
32. Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139–154.
33. Raes, F. (2010). Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 757-761.
34. Rajabi, G.h, Abbasi, G.H. (2011). [Investigation relationship between self criticism, social anxiety and fear of fail with same among students]. Journal of research clinical psychology and consultation: 171-82. (Persian)
35. Riskind, J. H., Rector, N. A., Taylor, S. (2012). Looming cognitive vulnerability to anxiety and its reduction in psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 22(2), 137-62.
36. Smeets. E., Neff, K. D., Alberts, H. and Peters, M. (2014). Meeting suffering with kindness: Effects of a brief self-compassion intervention for female college students. Perspective, Psychiatry Research, 190 (1), 72–78.
37. Suleman, Q. Aslam, H. Habib, M. Yasmeen, K. Jalalian, M. Akhtar, Z. Akhtar, B (2015). Exploring Factors Affecting Girls' Education at Secondary Level: A Case of Karak District, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(13), 35-113.
38. Thompson, R., & Zuroff, D. C. (2004). The Levels of Self-Criticism Scale: comparative self-criticism and internalized self-criticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 36 (2),419-30.
39. Van de Putte, B. Van Poppel, F. Vanassche, S. Sanchez, M. Jidkova, S. Eeckhaut, M. Oris, M. Matthijs, K (2113). The Rise of Age Homogamy in 13th Century Western Europe. Journal of Marriage and Family, 91(5), 1234-1253.
40. Van den Berg, G.J. Gupta, S (2015). The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality. Journal of Health Economics, 41, 141–152.
41. Wren, A., Somers, J., Melissa, A. W., Goetz, M. C., Leary, M. R., Fras, A. M., & et al (2012). Self-compassion in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain: Relationship of self-compassion to adjustment to persistent. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 43, 759-770.
42. Zuroff, D.C, Igreja, I, Mongrain M. (2005). Dysfunctional attitudes, dependency, and self-criticism as predictors of depressive mood states: A 12 month longitudinal study. Cogn Ther Res; 3: 315-26.
44. References in Persian
45. Iranian Electric, Beautiful; Begian Kullmers, Mohammad Javad & Baktay, Mojtaba (2016). The Effectiveness of Compassionate Mind-Based Cognitive Therapy on Modulating Maladaptive Schemas and Reducing Negative Emotions in Students with Math Disorders. Contemporary Psychology, 11 (1), 83-100.
46. Ismail Pour, Khalil; Bakhshi Pour Roodsari, Abbas and Mohammadzadehgan, Reza (2014). Determining the Factor Structure, Validity, and Reliability of the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortion Scale in Tabriz University Students. Quarterly Journal of Cognition Strategies in Learning, 2 (3), 53-72.
47. Kazemipour, Shahla (2009). Assessing the attitude of youth towards marriage and understanding its effects and consequences. Journal of Epistemic Studies in Islamic Azad University, 42, 75-95.
48. Mousavi, Ashraf Sadat and Ghorban, Nima (2006). Self-knowledge, self-criticism and mental health. Psychological Studies, 2 (3-4), 75-91.
49. Naqibi, Seyed Abolhassan; Hamidi, Mehraneh (2015). Evaluation of youth attitude towards marriage in Qaemshahr city. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 25 (131), 159-164.
50. National Registration Organization (2016). Frequency of marriages in provinces of Iran.
51. Shariati, Maryam-Hamid, Najmeh-Hashemi, Seyyed Ismail-Bashlideh, Kiomars and Marashi, Seyed Ali (2016). The Effectiveness of Kindness-Based Therapy on Depression and Self-Criticism of Students. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology, 17 (1), 43-50.
52. Taher Karami, Jila-Hosseini, Omid and Dashti Bozorgi, Zahra (1979). The Effectiveness of Compassion-Based Therapy on Resilience, Self-Esteem, Hope, and Psychological Well-Being in Menopausal Women of Ahvaz City. Social Health Research Quarterly, 5 (3), 189-197.

Send email to the article author

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Family Pathology, Counseling and Enrichment Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb